Making significant gains in sprinting speed in a short time isn't generally feasible. Quick fixes usually carry a high risk of injury.
If you aren't already doing hill sprints, they can help improve speed. Be very careful on the downhill "recovery" portion, though. The jarring can be hard on your knees.
In sprint events, where tenths of a second count, a better approach to making quick improvement may be to concentrate your extra effort on improving form.
For example, work on getting out of the blocks more quickly and smoothly. The first runner out of the blocks has a distinct advantage in a short race.
To make improvements in relay events, practice hand-offs. Passing the baton smoothly and quickly in a race can make the difference between winning and finishing as an "also-ran."
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